The Ancient Uighur
Great Uighur Empire
The Uyghur Empire was possibly the first, and unquestionably the largest, most important, and most powerful of all the colonial empires belonging to Mu. Colonization commenced just north of Burma more than 70,000 years ago.
The Uyghur Empire stretched its powerful arms from the Pacific Ocean across Central Asia and into Eastren Europe from the Caspian Sea on. This was before the British Isles became separated from the continent of Europe.
The southern boundary of the Uyghur Empire was along the northern boundaries of Cochin China, Burma, India, and Persia,and this was before the Himalayas and the other Asiatic mountains were raised.
Their northern boundary extended into Siberia, but how far there is no record to tell. Remains of their cities have been found in the southern parts of Siberia.
Legendary history states that the Uyghurs extended themselves all through the central parts of Europe. The Book of Manu, an ancient Hindu book, says: ” The Uyghurs had a settlement on the northern and eastern shores of the Caspian sea.”
They settled in northern Spain, northern France, and far down into the Balkan region. The late archeological discoveries in Moravia are Uyghur remains, and the evidences in which ethnologists have based their theories that man originated in Asia have been marks left by the advancing Uyghurs in Europe.
Chinese legend tells that the Uyghurs were at the height of their civilization about 17,000 years ago. This date agrees with geological phenomenon.
An ancient record in a monastery states: “The capital City of the Uyghurs with all its people was destroyed by a flood which extended throughout the eastern part of the Empire, destroying all and everything.” This ancient record is absolutely corroborated by geological phenomena.
At the time the Uyghur Empire was at its peak, the mountain had not been raised and what is now the Gobi Desert (Teklimakan)was a rich well-watered plain. Here the capital city of the Uyghurs was situated, almost due south from Lake Baikal. In 1896 a party of explorers, upon information received in Tibet, visited the site of the ancient city of Khara Khota. They had been told that the Uyghur capital city lay under the ruins of Khara Khota. They dug through these ruins and then through a stratum of boulders,gravel and sand fifty feet in thickness, and finally came upon the ruins of the capital city.
The history of the Uyghurs is the history of the Aryan races, for all of the true Aryan races descended from Uyghur forefathers. The Uyghurs formed chains of settlements across the central parts of Europe back in Tertiary Times. After the Empire was destroyed by the great magnetic cataclysm and mountain rising, the surviving remnants of humanity or their descendants again formed settlements in Europe. This was during the Pleistocene Time. The slaves, Tautens, Celts, Irish,Bretons and Basques are all descended from Uyghur stock. The Bretons,Basques, and genuine Irish are the descendants of those who survived the magnetic cataclysm and mountain raising.
Some Chinese records, bearing a date of 500 B.C. Describe the Uyghurs as having been “light-haired, blue-eyed people.” ” The Uyghurs were all of a light complexion, milk-white skin, with varying color of eyes and hair. In the north blue eye and light hair predominated. In the south were found those with dark hair and dark eyes.”
The Uyghurs had reached a high state of civilization and culture.They knew astrology, mining, the textile industries,architecture, mathematics, agriculture, writing, reading, medicine, ect. They were experts in decorative art or silk, metals, and wood, and they made statues of gold, silver, bronze, and clay and this was before the history of Egypt commenced.
The history of Central Asia is the history of the Uyghurs. The Uyghur people are a distinct, vibrant cultural element of Central Asia. Whether you examine the role of Uyghur scholars in Genghis Khan’s court as administrators, peruse the artistic wonders of their architectural accomplishments involving the Buddhist, Christian or Islamic periods, or read translations of the numerous written works on medicine,history or just their humor, one cannot but realize the unique and vital contributions of the Uyghur people to history.[Jack Churchward]
Currently, the majority of the Uyghur people live under the rule of the Chinese government. I would be remiss were I not to mention that this centuries’ old culture is under attack. Uyghur language text books are banned from classrooms and book burnings have consumed thousands of books, just for being correct about history. [Jack Churchward]
In the late 1930s, Turkey’s Independence leader Ataturk promoted research on Mu and other lost continents, in the hope of establishing connections between the Turkish civilization and other ancient cultures, such as the Uyghur, Indian, Mayan, and Aztec.
The Rise of Uyghurs in Mongolia
A rebellion in 742 against the ruling Göktürk Khaganate by the Uyghur, Karluk, and Basmyl tribes left an immense power vacuum in Mongolia and Central Asia. The Basmyls captured the Göktürk capital Ötügen and their king Özmish Khan in 744, effectively taking charge of the region. However a Uyghur-Karluk alliance against the Basmyls was formed later the same year. The coalition defeated the Basmyls and beheaded their king. The Basmyl tribes were effectively destroyed; their people sold to the Chinese or distributed amongst the victors. The Uyghurs took control of Mongolia, with the Karluk tribes given lands further West. The Uyghur chief Kutluk bilge köl (Glorious, wise, mighty) had himself crowned as the supreme ruler (khagan) of all Altaic tribes and built his capital at Ordu Baliq.
In 747, Kutluk bilge köl died, leaving his youngest son, Bayanchur Khan to reign as Khagan El etmish bilge (”State settled, wise”). After building a number of trading outposts with the Chinese, Bayanchur Khan used the profits to build the capital, Ordu Baliq (”City of Court”), and another city, Bai Baliq (”Rich City”), further up the Selenga River. The new khagan then embarked on a series of campaigns to bring all the steppe peoples under his banner. During this time the Empire vastly expanded, with Sekiz Oghuz, Qïrghïz, Qarluqs, Türgish, Toquz Tatars, Chiks and the remnants of the Basmïls coming under Uyghur rule.
The rebellion of An Lushan in the Tang empire in 755 forced the Chinese emperor to turn to Bayanchur Khan for assistance. Seeing this as an ideal opportunity to meddle in Chinese affairs, the khagan agreed, quelling several rebellions and defeating an invading Tibetan army from the south. As a result, the Uyghurs received tribute from the Chinese in 757 and Bayanchur Khan was given the daughter of the Chinese Emperor to marry (princess Ningo).
In 756, the Uyghurs turned their attentions to a rival steppe tribe, the Kyrgyz to the north. Bayanchur Khan destroyed several of their trading outposts before slaughtering a Kyrgyz army and executing their Khan.
Finally, in 759, after drinking heavily at a celebration, Bayanchur Khan died. His son Tengri Bögü succeeded him as Khagan Kutluk tarkhan sengün.
In 762, in alliance with the Tang, Tengri Bögü launched a campaign against the Tibetans. He recaptured for the Tang Emperor the western capital Chang’an. Khagan Tengri Bögü met with Manichaean priests from Iran while on campaign, and was converted to Manicheism, adopting it as the official religion of the Uyghur Empire.
In 779 Tengri Bögü, incited by Sogdian traders, living in Ordu Baliq, planned an invasion of China to take advantage of the accession of a new emperor. Tengri Bögü’s uncle, Tun Bagha Tarkhan opposed this plan, fearing it would result in Uyghur assimilation into Chinese culture. Bagha Tarkhan led a rebellion against his ruler, beheading him and his closest followers (about 2,000 nobles). Tun Bagha Tarkhan ascended the throne as Alp kutluk bilge (”Victorious, glorious, wise”) and enforced a new set of laws, which he designed to secure the unity of the khaganate, He also moved against the Kyrgyz once more, finally bringing them under the Uyghur Khaganate’s control.
In 795 the khagan, bearing the title Kutluk bilge, died and the Yaghlakar (Chinese: Yao-lo-ko) dynasty came to an end. The Uyghur Empire started to fragment before a new ruler, a general named Kutluk, declared himself the new khagan, under the title Ai tengride ülüg bulmïsh alp kutluk ulugh bilge (”Greatly born in moon heaven, victorious, glorious, great and wise”), founding a new dynasty, the Ediz (Chinese: A-tieh). With solid leadership once more, the Khaganate averted collapse. Kutluk became renowned for his leadership and management of the empire. Although he consolidated the empire, he failed to restore it to its previous power. On his death in 808, the empire began to fragment once again. He was succeeded by his son, who went on to improve trade in inner Asia. The last great khagan of the Empire was a khagan with unknown name, bearing the title Kün tengride ülüg bulmïsh alp küchlüg bilge (”Greatly born in sun heaven, victorious, strong and wise”), whose achievements included improved trade, uptill the region of Sogdiana, and on the battlefield he repulsed a force of invading Tibetans in 821. This khagan died in 824 and was succeeded by a brother, Qasar, who was murdered in 832, inaugurating a period of anarchy. In 839 the legitimate khagan was forced to commit suicide, and a usurping minister named Kürebir seized the throne. In the same year there was a famine that killed much of the livestock the Uyghur economy was based on.
The following spring, in 840, one of 9 Uyghur ministers, Kulug Bagha, rival of Kurebir, fled to the Kyrgyz tribe and invited them to invade from the north with a force of around 80,000 horsemen. They sacked the Uyghur capital at Ordu Baliq, razing it to the ground. The Kyrgyz captured the Uyghur Khagan, Kürebir (Hesa) and promptly beheaded him. The Kyrgyz went on to destroy other Uyghur cities throughout their empire, burning them to the ground. The last legitimate khagan, Öge, was assassinated in 847, having spent his 6-year reign in fighting the Kyrgyz,the supporters of his rival Ormïzt, a brother of Kürebir, and Tang China boundary troops in Ordos and Shaanxi, which he invaded in 841 . The Kyrgyz invasion destroyed the Uyghur Empire, causing a diaspora of Uyghur people across Central Asia.
After the Empire
The three kingdoms of Gansu (848-1036), Turfan (856-1369) and Karakhanids (850-1212) were formed by the Uyghurs who fled (southwest, west and further west respectively) from the Yenisei Kyrgyz, several years after the fall of the empire. None of these states became as powerful as the Uyghur Empire but did hold artistic, scientific and commercial achievements to their name. The Uyghurs became important civil servants in the later Mongol Empire, which adopted the Uyghur script as its official script.
The following list is based on Dennis Sinor, “The Uighur Empire of Mongolia,” Studies in Medieval Inner Asia, Variorum, 1997, V: 1-25. Because of the complex and inconsistent Uyghur and Chinese titulatures, references to the rulers now typically include their number in the sequence, something further complicated by the non-inclusion of an unnamed ephemeral son of 4 between 5 and 6 in 790, and the inclusion of a spurious reign between 7 and 9.
- 744–747 Qutlugh bilge köl (K’u-li p’ei-lo)
- 747–759 El-etmish bilge (Bayan Chur, Mo yen ch’o), son of 1
- 759–779 Qutlugh tarqan sengün (Tengri Bögü, Teng-li Mou-yü), son of 2
- 779–789 Alp qutlugh bilge (Tun bagha tarkhan), son of 1
- 789–790 Ai tengride bulmïsh külüg bilge (To-lo-ssu), son of 4
- 790–795 Qutlugh bilge (A-ch’o), son of 5
- 795–808 Ai tengride ülüg bulmïsh alp qutlugh ulugh bilge (Qutlugh, Ku-tu-lu)
- 805–808 Ai tengride qut bulmïsh külüg bilge (spurious reign: tenure belongs to 7, name to 9)
- 808–821 Ai tengride qut bulmïsh külüg bilge (Pao-i), son of 7
- 821–824 Kün tengride ülüg bulmïsh alp küchlüg bilge (Ch’ung-te), son of 9
- 824–832 Ai tengride qut bulmïsh alp bilge (Qasar, Ko-sa), son of 9
- 832–839 Ai tengride qut bulmïsh alp külüg bilge (Hu), son of 10
- 839–840 Kürebir (Ho-sa), usurper
- 841–847 Öge, son of 9